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Senior: 11 & 12: Unit 2: Inequalities of Income Distribution


A law, regulation, procedure, administrative action, incentive, or voluntary practice of governments and other institutions. Policy decisions are frequently reflected in resource allocations.
An action or process of solving a problem
OR an answer to a problem 
A plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.

Inequality of Income Distribution - General

What is income inequality?
Income inequality in the unequal distribution of income in society. ACOSS and UNSW measure income inequality by dividing the population into groups of 20% by income, then into the highest 10%, 5% and 1% income groups, which are compared with the income of the lowest 20% income group. We look at the main drivers of income inequality by breaking income down into earnings, investment income, government income support payments and income tax; and we look at where different population groups, such as sole parents, people receiving JobSeeker Allowance, and people receiving income from superannuation are located on the income scale (ACOSS 2021).
2023 Australia Institute: Inequality on Steroids as Bottom 90% get just 7% of Economic Growth Since 2009
2023 Australia Institute: Income inequality surges as richest group gets more than 90 per cent of the gains, Australia Institute finds
UNSW Newsroom: Who is most impacted by inequality in Australia 2020?
ACOSS and UNSW: Inequality in Australia 2020 Part 1 - Impact of Covid on Income Inequality 
ACOSS and UNSW: Inequality in Australia 2020 Part 2 - Who is affected and why? 
APO: Inequality in Australia 2020 - Part 1, Overview
ABC News (Sep 2020): Rich getting richer and poor slipping further back, with youth inequality growing fastest, ACOSS says (Dec 2020): New report: Who is most impacted by inequality in Australia? 
Sydney Morning Herald (Dec 2020): The rich, the comfortable middle and the rest: Australia’s wealth and income ladder revealed
The Guardian: Inequality is already rising in Australia - Tax cuts would entrench it for no economic reason (2020)
2018 Productivity Commission: Rising Inequality? A Stocktake of the Evidence 
The Guardian: Australian Poverty in Graphs - It's a Desperate State of Affairs 
Check out the excellent and up-to-date graph.
Roy Morgan: Wealth Inequality in Australia is Getting Worse 
Probono Australia: Wealth Inequality in Australia on the Rise 
ACOSS: Inequality in Australia 2018 
Trends in Australia's Distribution of Income and Wealth 2018 
By Whiteford, Peter, in Ecodate journal. 01/03/2018, Vol. 32 Issue 1, p3-11. 9p.  
The Courier Mail: New report reveals reality of inequality in Australia 
Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia 2018(University of Melbourne)
OECD Economics: Income wealth and earnings inequality in Australia - Evidence from the HILDA survey 
Productivity Commission: Is Australia becoming more unequal? (May 2019)
Productivity Commission: Rising Inequality? A Stocktake of the Evidence 
Productivity Commission: Highlights of 'Rising Inequality in Australia' Document 
This document is the highlights package which gives an overview of the above document.

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Other Topics A to E

Using Adaptive Governance to Rethink the Way Science Supports Australian Drought Policy

Sourced from Australia/New Zealand Points of View Database

Drought Policy - Sourced from the Australian Government Website

ABARES: Farm performance: broadacre and dairy farms, 2016–17 to 2018–19

ABARES: Analysis of 2018 Drought

North Queensland Register: Drought Slashes Queensland Farmer Incomes by Half

2023 Consumer Group Topics

2022 National Indigenous Australians Agency: Income 
2022 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Indigenous income and finance
2022 The Borgen Project: Challenges for Indigenous Australians

2021 Bloomberg: RBA Aims to Boost Job Outcomes for Indigenous Australians

2019 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Indigenous Income and Finance 
2019-20 Parliament of Australia: Indigenous Affairs Overview
2020 School of Justice, UQ: 'Walking in 2 worlds' - a qualitative review of income management in Cape York 
ABS: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Income, 2016 


Cashless Welfare Card / Income Management Plans
Alternative Law Journal: Welfare meeting financial services - the cashless debit card dichotomy 

Griffith Law Review: Cashless welfare transfers and Australia's First Nations - Redemptive or repressive violence? 

2022 The Guardian: Labor promises to scrap ‘privatised’ cashless welfare card if elected
2020 School of Justice, UQ: 'Walking in 2 worlds' - a qualitative review of income management in Cape York 
2022 The Guardian: Cashless debit card users able to opt out by October as Labor prepares to scrap program
2022 Department of Social Services: Changes to the cashless debit card

2022/August The Australian Financial Review: Labor confirms payments boost for more seniors 

2022/August The Australian: ‘Tsunami of trauma’ if cashless debit card axed

2022/August The Australian: Laverton warns of grog-fuelled violence as cashless card goes 

 2022/August The Courier-Mail: Welfare payment drug and grog fear

Australian National University: Unpacking the income of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians: Wages, government payments and other income 
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander profile - Household income 
ANU University: Indigenous Income, Poverty and Inequality, 2016 
Bridging Our Growing Divide: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders 
Multidimensional Disadvantage of Australian Children 
This study compares the well-being of indigenous with non-indigenous children in Australia.
Experiences of Racism and Socio Economic Status 
Does Racism explain the gap between health and socioeconomic status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples?

2023 Gender pay gap remains a national shame 
Journal article: Guardian, No. 2014, 11 Jul 2022, p.7

2023 UNSW: Why the key to bridging Australia's gender pay gap lies in statistics

May 2023 Courier-Mail: Gender job gap widens

2022 (December) Australian National University: Gender pay gap

2022 Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre: Gender equity insights 2022 - the state of inequality in Australia

2022 Australian Workplace Gender Authority: Australia's Gender Pay Gap Statistics

2022 KPMG: The gender pay gap nears $1 billion per week

2022 The Australian: Gender pay gap almost $1 billion a week 

2022  9 News: Sex discrimination the leading cause in $1b-a-week gender pay gap, research reveals

2022 9 News: Gender pay gap myth busting: Why it's more than 'equal pay'

2022 ANU: Australia last in global gender pay gap reporting scorecard

2022 The Guardian: Gender pay gap narrows but Australian men still twice as likely as women to earn more than $120,000 a year

2022 Parliament of Australia: Wage developments in Australia
Scroll down to discussion of gender wage gap.

Degrees of separation: Gender pay gap revealed in university degrees 
From The Courier-Mail, 22 September 2021.

AFR (April 2021): Economics, not ideology, will fix gender pay gap 

AFR (June 2020): Recovery 'once in a generation' chance to fix gender inequity 

Gender equality forefront of government agenda 

Informit database: Gendered and generational inequalities in the gig economy 

Australian Gender Pay Gap Statistics 2021 

The Guardian: 5 ways to make the 2021 budget more female-friendly

Workplace Gender Equality Agency: Australia's Gender Pay Gap Statistics 2021

Equal Pay Day

ABS: Understanding Measures of the Gender Pay Gap

Inside Australia's Gender Pay Gap 

Pay Gap and Gender Discrimination - No More Euphemisms 

The Real Gender Pay Gap 

2023 Homelessness in Australia
2023 Homelessness Australia: A plan to end homelessness
2022 Salvation Army: Homeless statistics Australia
2022 Mission Australia: Mission Australia’s response to Report on Government Services 2022 - Housing and homelessness
2022 Launch Housing: Australian homelessness monitor

2022 Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (HURI): Recent reports tackle homelessness and unaffordable housing concerns across Australia

2022 Department of Social Services: Homelessness
2022 Ending homelessness in Australia - an evidence and policy deep dive
2022 Social Futures: Two new reports show the housing crisis is worsening
2022 ACOSS: Housing affordability takes a hit - regionally and globally

2022 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Housing affordability

PIAC helps 50,000 people out of debt 
Sourced through Informit database
Services for People Experiencing Homelessness 
Sourced from Informit database. This paper discusses the disaster impacts on service providers for people experiencing homelessness and the possible ways to mitigate severe effects.
Big Issue: Housing Ends Homelessness Modern Law Review: Reducing Homelessness or Re-Ordering the Deck Chairs? 
The Conversation: Homelessness soars in our biggest cities, driven by rising inequality since 2001 
Swinburne University of Technology: Homelessness Soars in our Biggest Cities 
The Conversation: Why Australia’s homelessness problem is getting worse, despite a rise in housing stock 

Around 7 million people – or 28% of the Australian population – live in rural and remote areas, which encompass many diverse locations and communities (ABS 2022c). These Australians face unique challenges due to their geographic location and often have poorer health outcomes than people living in metropolitan areas.

2022 ABS Income Inequality

2022 The Guardian: Australia’s highest and lowest income suburbs: how does your postcode compare?

2022 National Rural Health Alliance: Poverty in rural and remote Australia

2022 ABC News: Cost-of-living crisis forcing people in remote regions to give up fresh produce

2022 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Rural and remote Australians

2022 Australian Institute for Health and Welfare: Rural and remote health

2022 Pro Bono Australia: Affluent but unequal: how the urban-regional divide is affecting Australian children

2022/August The Australian: Rural jobs 'could solve shortage'

2020 Remote area tax concessions and payments - Productivity Commission Report 

The Australian: One Nation and Pauline Hanson tap into a regional disconnect

Food Price Gap Shows Needs For Subsidies and Promo Deals in Rural and Remote Areas 
Sourced through Informit database. This article discusses the cost of fresh, high quality foods in rural and remote areas compared to big cities.

Rural Income Inequality Experienced by People in Rural and Remote Australia 

Regional Austalia Institute: The indicators of, and impact of, regional inequality in Australia 

ACTU: Regional Inequality in Australia and the Future of Work 

Data Sets

We have a whole page devoted to finding data sets

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

Useful Databases

Zotero Citation-Maker Program

Other Topics F to M

Employment Conditions and Health Inequalities - Use a Control + F search to find "foreign workers"

Language Proficiency and Socioeconomic Outcomes 
Sourced through Google Scholar this paper looks at migrants' English speaking ability and the relationship with socioeconomic status.

2022 The Guardian: Buyers warned about rushing into government’s First Home Guarantee scheme
2022 Soho: First Home Buyers Are Struggling More Than Ever – Here’s Why

2022 Mozo: Comparing Liberal and Labor's housing proposals: which one will actually solve housing inequality?

2022  Real Government policies to help ageing Aussies are hurting first homebuyers, research shows

Is home ownership becoming less accessible in Australia? 
Sourced through informit database, this article examines the factors surrounding first home ownership.
Good News As Old Economy Lifts 
Sourced from Informit Database. Discussing the First Home Buyers stamp duty cuts.
Australian First Home Buyers Have Unrealistic Expectations 
Your Mortgage Australia: What You Need to Know About Morrison's First Home-Buyer Scheme 
Channel 9 Finance: Little Respite for First Home Buyers Despite Cooling Aussie Housing Market 
Australian Financial Review: Caution Urged For First Home Buyers AFR: Caution Urged for First Home Buyers 
The Conversation: The Brutal Truth on Housing - Somebody has to lose in order for first home-buyers to win 
Reserve Bank : The Housing Market and the Economy 
Review of current housing market highlighting issues which will impact first home buyers - range of graphs showing housing price to income models, the decreasing amount of disposable income, effect of foreign investment etc
Finder: First home buyer interest surges in 2019 
Ray White: Infographic - First Home Buyers 
Real Estate Institute WA: Latest ABS figures show Australian first home buyers are active 

‘Our rental system is rigged’: young novelists on their generation’s housing crisis

‘It’s just been a hellride’: how the end of the affordable housing scheme is pushing families to the edge
Essential workers being priced out of affordable rentals across Australia, new report finds
Advocates call for National Rental Affordability Scheme extension amid soaring rents and cost of living

2022 Canstar: New study finds housing affordability in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane & Adelaide now worse than New York

2022 ANZ CoreLogic: Housing Affordability Report 2022 

2022 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Housing affordability

2020 9 News: 'Getting worse every year': Rental affordability crisis growing across Australia, data shows

2020 V&F Housing Enterprise Foundation: Housing affordability in Australia 

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Housing affordabability 2021 

Housing Affordability PDF of Library ebook

The Conversation: Rising inequality in Australia isn’t about incomes: it’s almost all about housing 

Victorian Affordable Housing Policy Review Published in 2017 based around the Victorian Affordable Housing Policy

Housing and Employment Vol 1. Sourced from the Productivity Commission this paper looks at links between housing assistance for those in need and their participation in employment.

Real Estate Institute of Queensland: Is Home Ownership Becoming Less Affordable in Australia? 18 May 2018

Reserve Bank : The Housing Market and the Economy Review of current housing market highlighting issues which will impact first home buyers - range of graphs showing housing price to income models, the decreasing amount of disposable income, effect of foreign investment etc

Inequality of Income in Australia 2023

by Jake Wishart of the Australia Institute, April 2023.


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Other Topics N to Y

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2020): Elective Surgery 
The Cost of Waiting on an Orthopaedic Waiting List: A Scoping Review 
Sourced from Informit database. From 2003-2033 there is a predicted 223% increase inexpenditure on health management of musculoskeletal

There is a Housing Crisis in Sydney Sourced through google using site:gov at the beginning of the search.

Underemployment in Australia: A Panel Investigation (2018) 
Referencing: Parvinder Kler, Azhar Hussain Potia & Sriram Shankar (2018) Underemployment in Australia: a panel investigation, Applied Economics Letters, 25:1, 24-28, DOI:10.1080/13504851.2017.1290770
Australian Bureau of Statistics: Underemployment$File/41020_underemployment.pdf
Underemployment: A New Source of Misery 
Australian Financial Review
Jobless rate will tell only half the story 
Australian Financial Review

Employment Predictors 
Sourced through google using site:gov. This article details the relationship between people with disabilities and employment.

Spill Over Effects of Spousal Unemployment 
Sourced through google using site:gov. This document discusses the impact of a spouse’s or partner’s unemployment on the older adults’ mental health.

Securing Better Pay Document sourced through Expanded Academic ASAP database. It was published in 2009

Developing Career Readiness Sourced through Google using site:gov. This paper discusses the role of tertiary institutions in providing students with opportunities to develop career readiness.

The Guardian: No jobs, no homes, no services: how inequality is crippling young people 

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