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Senior: 11 & 12: Term 2 : Ecological Hazard Zones


How to Reference



Visual References: All photos, pictures, diagrams and graphs are referred to as ‘Figure’, and centred, with no wrap-around text.

Rapidly cooling lava surface

Figure 1
SandAtlas n.d.

Comment on the Figure in the following paragraph, for instance: The glowing colours in Figure 1 reveal the various temperatures of lava, with the bright yellow the hottest (over 1000 degrees C.) and the orange cooler at 800-900 degrees C.

NOTE: All graphic in-text references need to be fully referenced  and added to your  List of References at the end of your assessment, using the Harvard Australia method, through CiteAce. Choose the tab 'Image, Sound or Video Clip'.

List of References

'Types of lava flows'  n.d., SandAtlas, SandAtlas, viewed 6 March 2019, <>. 


Set-out of Table within your document as shown above with in-text reference EXCEPT label as Table 1 etc. (NOT Figure).

Ecological Hazard Zones

ONESearch Database Explorer

The ENTIRE collection of resources provided by the BBC Birtles Library can be searched on ONE single, powerful search platform, which retrieves print books, eBooks, database articles and websites. Click HERE for assistance.

Report writing

Before you hand in your assignment, check you have addressed all the aspects required in your Critieria Sheet. 

As you complete the content of your Report, review the format of your Report using the following checklist:

  • Title Page - include your name/class, and teacher's name 
  • Table of Contents sits on its own page following the title page
  • Numbering starts on Page 3 (your Introduction page)
  • Each section of the report is given a number and title e.g. 1. Introduction 2. Discussion/Findings 3. Conclusion (Heading 1)
  • Subsections within each major section ts a sub-section number e.g. 3.1, 3.2 (Heading 2)
  • Each new section should start on the top of a NEW page 


  • In-text references completed
  • Images are all centred with a title written above the image.  Figure ...  below the image and the in-text reference below that.
  • All sources recorded in CiteAce -  copy and transferred to your Report under  REFERENCES.


Data Sets

Data sets involve the integration of heterogeneous data in varying formats and from diverse communities. Four basic features can be identified as common to most definitions: grouping, content, relatedness, and purpose.

Advanced Web Searching Tips

1. Use 'Ctrl F' (Control + Find) to search for particular terms easily in a long document, whether from a website or a database article.
2.  Use a Boolean command - put double inverted commas around phrases to limit and improve your results eg "energy drinks cardiovascular problems children". 
3. Use a Google domain command eg site:edu OR site:gov to limit results to a CERTAIN DOMAIN such as education or government eg biodiesel site:edu
4. Use a Google command to limit results to the MOST RECENT: After you get your results, choose the Google Menu Bar, and choose 'Tools'. Then on the far left, at the drop-down menu next to 'Any Time', you can choose 'Within the last year' (or less, if you prefer), but generally, you can choose 'Custom Range' at the bottom, as often the last 3-4 years would be sufficient for a recent search.

QUT C.R.A.A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites

Check the quality of your websites using these criteria (adapted from QUT Library):
Currency: Timeliness of the information
  • When was the information published, posted or last updated?
  • Is the information current for your topic and field of study? How recent does it have to be? Can older sources work just as well?
Relevance: Importance of the information for your needs
  • Is the information appropriate for a senior secondary course?
  • Is this an adequately in-depth examination or a quick summary of the topic?
  • Who's the intended audience? Is it the general public, a student, a researcher or industry?
  • Is the level of information too basic or too advanced for your needs?
Authority: Source of the information
  • Is the author/authoring body (individual person, or institution, or organisation) established and reputable?
  • Are their qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, educational background and previous work (if any) relevant and do they add credibility to the source?
  • Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organisation?
  • Do references to other sources support the writing ie is a Reference List provided?
Accuracy: Reliability and correctness of the information
  • Where does the information come from, and is it supported by evidence?
  • Does it have a Reference List or Bibliography so you can easily find and verify the sources used?
  • Are there any spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
Purpose: Reason the information exists
  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
  • Is the viewpoint of the author's affiliation/ sponsors reflected in the message or content?
  • Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?

Purpose: Reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?