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Year 10: Term 3: Waves, Sound and Light

Claims and Resources for Them

Extended Claim: Knowledge of different types of waves, and their motion through the ocean and the continents allows prediction of the possible extent of damage or the timing of tsunamis and earthquakes.

Britannica database: Wave types

Access Science database: Wave types and tsunamis

Earth Data: Making Waves in Tsunami Research

SMS-Tsunami Warning: Tsunamis and other wave types

TerryTao: The shallow water wave equation and tsunami propagation

Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences (EAPS): Using ocean waves to predict ground shaking in earthquakes

LA Times: Ocean waves help quake scientists make predictions for the Big One

Geophysical Journal International: Ocean-influenced Rayleigh waves from outer-rise earthquakes and their effects on durations of long-period ground motion

Frontiers in Marine Science: Ocean Observations Required to Minimize Uncertainty in Global Tsunami Forecasts, Warnings, and Emergency Response Long-period ocean-bottom motions in the source areas of large subduction earthquakes

AGU Pubs: Tsunami generation and associated waves in the water column and seabed due to an asymmetric earthquake motion within an anisotropic substratum

Cover Art Physics of Tsunamis 

Reflects significant progress in tsunami research, monitoring and mitigation within the last decade. Primarily meant to summarize the state-of-the-art knowledge on physics of tsunamis, it describes up-to-date models of tsunamis generated by a submarine earthquake, landslide, volcanic eruption, meteorite impact, and moving atmospheric pressure inhomogeneities. Models of tsunami propagation and run-up are also discussed. The book investigates methods of tsunami monitoring including coastal mareographs, deep-water pressure gauges, GPS buoys, satellite altimetry, the study of ionospheric disturbances caused by tsunamis and the study of paleotsunamis. Non-linear phenomena in tsunami source and manifestations of water compressibility are discussed in the context of their contribution to the wave amplitude and energy. The practical method of calculating the initial elevation on a water surface at a seismotectonic tsunami source is expounded. Potential and eddy traces of a tsunamigenic earthquake in the ocean are examined in terms of their applicability to tsunami warning.

Extended Claim: Applying knowledge of waves and resonance has improved the design of sporting equipment to allow for greater performance by athletes.

Lumen Learning:  Standing waves and resonance

All About Circuits: Standing waves and resonance

Macquarie University: Standing waves and resonance

Google  Books: Materials and sports equipment
Note: various pages will be missing.
May be useful to see which types of sports equipment have benefitted.

The creation and regulation of sports equipment for the future 

University of Sydney: The physics of a tennis racquet

Justia Patents: Sports equipment with resonant core bodies and method for production thereof


EXTENDED CLAIM: Improvements in the field of optics have revolutionised the way information is communicated over the past 50 years.

Recent fibre optics systems have allowed scientists to make many important advances in the telecommunication, mechanical and medical fields. Sound, video, and computer communications are more reliable than in the past. Engineers are able to monitor and maintain safer modes of transportation. Fibre optics have a much lighter weight, a smaller diameter, and the ability to avoid corrosion and rust due to a non-metallic construction.

Science Daily: Optical system promises to revolutionize undersea communications Advancements in optical data transmission and security systems

Science Direct: Optical fibre transmission

Research Gate: High speed and spectrally efficient optical communication system - review of the recent advances and emerging trends

The optics are good - vendors weigh in on optical developments in communications technology and test solutions Advancements in optical communication

The optics are good - vendors weigh in on optical developments in communications technology and test solutions 
From EE-Evaluation Engineering. Sept, 2019, Vol. 58 Issue 9, p13, Published by Endeavour Business Media.

Research Gate: The changing trends of optical communications 

EXTENDED CLAIM: Developments in the way materials interact with light will have  profound implications for a range of industries over the next 25 years.

APL: Light and matter interactions: Recent advances in materials, theory, fabrication, and characterization

“Light” Industry: An Overview of the Impact of Lasers on Manufacturing 
From ebook: Advances in Laser Materials Processing

Data of the future may ride light waves
From Science News. 12/21/2019, Vol. 196 Issue 11

Physicists use light waves to accelerate supercurrents, enable ultrafast quantum computing

Scientists use light to accelerate supercurrents, access forbidden light, quantum properties

Researchers tame silicon to react with light for next-generation microelectronics 
From: NewsRx Health & Science, Publisher: NewsRX LLC, June 27, 2021.

Advanced Web Searching Tips

1. Use 'Ctrl F' (Control + Find) to search for particular terms easily in a long document, whether from a website or a database article.
2.  Use a Boolean command - put double inverted commas around phrases to limit and improve your results eg "energy drinks cardiovascular problems children". 
3. Use a Google domain command eg site:edu OR site:gov to limit results to a CERTAIN DOMAIN such as education or government eg biodiesel site:edu
4. Use a Google command to limit results to the MOST RECENT: After you get your results, choose the Google Menu Bar, and choose 'Tools'. Then on the far left, at the drop-down menu next to 'Any Time', you can choose 'Within the last year' (or less, if you prefer), but generally, you can choose 'Custom Range' at the bottom, as often the last 3-4 years would be sufficient for a recent search.

C.R.A.A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites

Check the quality of your websites using these criteria (adapted from QUT Library):
Currency: Timeliness of the information
  • When was the information published, posted or last updated?
  • Is the information current for your topic and field of study? How recent does it have to be? Can older sources work just as well?
Relevance: Importance of the information for your needs
  • Is the information appropriate for a senior secondary course?
  • Is this an adequately in-depth examination or a quick summary of the topic?
  • Who's the intended audience? Is it the general public, a student, a researcher or industry?
  • Is the level of information too basic or too advanced for your needs?
Authority: Source of the information
  • Is the author/authoring body (individual person, or institution, or organisation) established and reputable?
  • Are their qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, educational background and previous work (if any) relevant and do they add credibility to the source?
  • Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organisation?
  • Do references to other sources support the writing ie is a Reference List provided?
Accuracy: Reliability and correctness of the information
  • Where does the information come from, and is it supported by evidence?
  • Does it have a Reference List or Bibliography so you can easily find and verify the sources used?
  • Are there any spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
Purpose: Reason the information exists
  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
  • Is the viewpoint of the author's affiliation/ sponsors reflected in the message or content?
  • Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?

Purpose: Reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?

Research Tips for Senior School Science

ONESearch Resource Explorer

The ENTIRE collection of resources provided by the BBC Birtles Library can be searched on ONE single, powerful search platform, which retrieves print books, eBooks, database articles and websites. Click HERE for assistance.

Useful Databases

Subscription Science Journals


MyBib Referencing Generator - APA 7

Manage your bibliography using "MyBib" - Referencing - LibGuides at  Melbourne High School

MyBib is an online referencing generator to help you with in text references and your List of References.


  • Sign up for an account so that it will store the references for your assignment. Add it to your bookmark bar to find it quickly.
  • Install the Chrome extension to make your referencing even faster.
  • Make sure everything in your Reference List has a corresponding In-Text citation in the body of your essay.

Zotero - Online Referencing Tool Hints

Zotero can be set to the same Harvard AGPS (Australia) style that CiteAce uses, called 'Melbourne Polytechnic - Harvard'. Please read the instructions carefully.

Any issues - see your Library Staff

Writing the Rationale

Science Template for Writing Research Assignments

From Mrs Allen:

1.       START EARLY

          a.       First 10% - General Reading (This is where your ideas are shaped, read 3-6 sources of VARIETY)
          b.       10% - 40/50% - Active Notetaking (This is where you collect & collate evidence & info)
          c.       40-50% - 80% - Organisation of Ideas (This is where you construct the structure of your essay,  and allocate the number of words for  each part).
          d.       80% - 100% - Writing (This is where you write the assignment as streamlined as possible)

Research Assignment Template - Mrs D.Allen

Suggested Physics Academic Websites

Khan Academy - Physics. Mission is to provide a free, world‑class education for anyone, anywhere. · A personalized learning resource for all ages. Free tools for parents and teachers. - The latest news in physics, materials science, quantum physics, optics and photonics, superconductivity science and technology. Updated Daily.

The membership magazine of the Institute of Physics, one of the largest physical societies in the world. It is an international monthly magazine covering all areas of physics, pure and applied, and is aimed at physicists in research, industry, physics outreach, and education worldwide.

Suggested Science Academic Websites

The world’s largest collection of open access research papers

An inclusive journal community which believes all rigorous science needs to be published and discoverable, widely disseminated and freely accessible to all

A free distribution service and an open archive for scholarly articles in the fields of science

An American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases about science


Breaks down the stories behind the most interesting news and photos on the Internet.

A network of not-for-profit media outlets that publish news stories on the Internet that are written by academics and researchers

The NCBI advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information.


Regarded as a 'porthole' site, SciTech Daily offers the best intelligent, informed science and technology coverage and analysis you can find on a daily basis, sourcing a huge range of great writers and excellent research institutes.

Gateway to the best Science news sources.

A global science gateway comprised of national and international scientific databases and portals.

Google Scholar's searches are set to cover scholarly material more often than 'regular' Google. Google Scholar's searches are set to cover scholarly material more often than 'regular' Google.  Read the article below on the advantages an disadvantages of using it.

Google Books can be very frustrating because often much of the book is missing and you are expected to purchase it to read the full content. So after you put in your search term you are interested in (eg biodiesel), and get some results up,  you should then go immediately to the search box (on the left - above 'About this box') undefined and type in a particular word or term you are interested in (eg CO2 emissions OR methanol) you should get a number of pages pop up. Choose one that looks useful - you should get some good results this way!