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Year 10: Term 2: Elements

Claim

CLAIM: Every element has a greater potential for good than for harm

Example of How to Construct a Research Question

Claim: Biofuels are more efficient and have less environmental impact than fossil fuels.

Research question: Is the combustion of biodiesel more efficient than petroleum-based diesel in terms of energy output (enthalpy) and CO2 emissions?

Developing the research question:

1. Identify the key (important) terms in the claim. a. biofuels b. more efficient c. less environmental impact d. fossil fuels

2. Propose questions that need to be addressed to refine key terms and narrow the focus of the claim.

a. What are biofuels?

b. Which biofuels and fossil fuels will be investigated?

c. What does ‘more efficient’ mean in relation to energy output and greenhouse gas emissions?

d. How do energy output and greenhouse gas emissions link to the chemistry of fuels, exothermic reactions and enthalpy?

3. Conduct research to gather information to address the questions.

a. How will energy output be compared/evaluated?

b. Which greenhouse gases are produced as a by-product of combustion of biofuels and fossil fuels?

c. How will greenhouse gases be compared/evaluated?

d. What data will be collected for energy output and greenhouse gas emissions?

e. What is the chemistry related to energy production and greenhouse gases produced from the combustion of biofuels and fossil fuels?

4. Draft the research question to address the claim.

a. Do biofuels produce fewer greenhouse gases and more energy than fossils fuels?

5. Refine and focus the research question.

a. Focus on products of combustion: energy output (enthalpy) and CO2 produced.

b. Focus on biodiesel and petroleum-based diesel.

c. Define efficiency in terms of higher energy output and lower CO2 emissions.

6. Present the research question to the teacher for approval.

a. Is the combustion of biodiesel more efficient than petroleum-based diesel in terms of energy output (enthalpy) and CO2 emissions?

Sample Rationale

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Source Evaluation Sheet (Based on C.R.A.A.P. Test)

C.R.A.A.P. Test Evaluation Sheet for Sources Used 

Save to your tablet, complete and print out to attach to the back of your assignment.

DO NOT give one-word responses!

Advanced Google Web Searching

Google Advanced search techniques

1. You can complete an advanced search in Google Advanced Search, which helps narrow or refine your search for better, more specific results.

2.  Narrow your results to one particular domain type, by adding site: and a domain name to your search terms.

  • Looking for an educational site -  genetic engineering site:edu
  • Looking for a government site - genetic engineering site:gov
  • To restrict your search to Australian websites, add '.au' -  genetic engineering site:edu.au

3 letter Domain names

  • gov - Government 
  • go -  some countries such as Indonesia use .go only
  • edu - Educational 
  • org - Organizations (nonprofit)
  • mil -  Military
  • com - commercial
  • net - Network organizations

2 letter Domain names for country of origin
 

  • au - Australia
  • uk - United Kingdom
  • cn - China
  • in - India
  • id - Indonesia

A complete list can be found on the CIA World Factbook

3. Use 'Ctrl F' (Control + Find) to search for particular terms easily in a long document, whether from a website or a database article.

4. Use a Google command to limit results to the MOST RECENT: After you get your results, choose the Google Menu Bar, and choose 'Tools'. Then on the far left, at the drop-down menu next to 'Any Time', .you can choose 'Within the last year' (or less, if you prefer), but generally, you can choose 'Custom Range' at the bottom, as often the last 3 to 5 years would be sufficient for a recent search.

5. Use Boolean searching

  • Use double inverted commas ("...") to enclose a phrase eg "plastic pollution". This command forces Google to return results where these 2 words are exactly side by side.
  • Use AND to limit your results: A search for this phrase - Australian AND Indonesian "plastic pollution" will force Google to return results where both Australian and Indonesian plastic pollution is mentioned in the same article.
  • Use NOT to limit your results (in a different way): A search for this - "plastic pollution" NOT marine - will force Google to return results about plastic pollution which do not include anything related to the ocean.
  • Use OR to expand your results: A search for this - global OR worldwide "plastic pollution" - will force Google to return results for global as well as its synonym worldwide.
  • Use filetype:pdf to search in Google for only pdf articles - "plastic pollution" filetype:pdf - will force Google to return results on plastic pollution which are only pdf articles (PDFs are great sources sometimes deeply buried in Google results and remain unseen).

ONESearch

The ENTIRE collection of resources provided by the BBC Library can be searched on ONE single, powerful search platform, which retrieves print books, eBooks, database articles and websites. Click HERE for assistance.

Useful Websites

Chemistry Websites

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Data Sets

C.R.A,A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites

Check the quality of your websites using these criteria (adapted from QUT Library):

Currency: Timeliness of the information

  • When was the information published, posted or last updated?
  • Is the information current for your topic and field of study? How recent does it have to be? Can older sources work just as well?
Relevance: Importance of the information for your needs
  • Is the information appropriate for a senior secondary course?
  • Is this an adequately in-depth examination or a quick summary of the topic?
  • Who's the intended audience? Is it the general public, a student, a researcher or industry?
  • Is the level of information too basic or too advanced for your needs?

Authority: Source of the information

  • Is the author/authoring body (individual person, or institution, or organisation) established and reputable?
  • Are their qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, educational background and previous work (if any) relevant and do they add credibility to the source?
  • Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organisation?
  • Do references to other sources support the writing ie is a Bibliography or Reference List provided?

Accuracy: Reliability and correctness of the information

  • Where does the information come from, and is it supported by evidence?
  • Does it have a Reference List or Bibliography so you can easily find and verify the sources used?
  • Are there any spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?

Purpose: Reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
  • Is the viewpoint of the author's affiliation/ sponsors reflected in the message or content?
  • Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?

Research Tips for Senior Science

Useful Databases

Subscription Science Journals

Highly respected Science journal. Login with email: jking@bbc.qld.edu.au. Use the little magnifying glass symbol in the top toolbar to search.



Academic Science Websites

The world’s largest collection of open access research papers

An inclusive journal community which believes all rigorous science needs to be published and discoverable, widely disseminated and freely accessible to all

A free distribution service and an open archive for scholarly articles in the fields of science


An American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases about science

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Breaks down the stories behind the most interesting news and photos on the Internet

Offers the best intelligent, informed science and technology coverage and analysis on a daily basis

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Provides the latest science news, in-depth articles, analysis and opinion, photo galleries, video and podcasts from the ABC

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Google Scholar's searches are set to cover scholarly material more often than 'regular' Google. Google Scholar's searches are set to cover scholarly material more often than 'regular' Google.  Read the article below on the advantages an disadvantages of using it. TIP: To get PDFs only, type in 'filetype:pdf'. It's great!

Advantages / Disadvantages of Google Scholar  

How to use Google Books

Google Books can be very frustrating because often much of the book is missing and you are expected to purchase it to read the full content. So after you put in your search term you are interested in (eg biodiesel), and get some results up,  you should then go immediately to the search box (on the left - above 'About this box') undefined 
and type in a particular word or term you are interested in (eg CO2 emissions OR methanol) you should get a number of pages pop up. Choose one that looks useful - you should get some good results this way!

How to Write In-Text References for Science

Zotero - Online Referencing Tool

Zotero can be set to the same Harvard AGPS (Australia) style that CiteAce uses, called 'Melbourne Polytechnic - Harvard'. Please read the instructions carefully.

Any issues - see your Library Staff