Skip to Main Content

Year 10: Term 4: 'Lost' Civilisations

'Lost' Civilisations


Archaeology is the study of human history using material remains. In this task you are being asked to discuss the validity of the statement ‘Archaeology and science have worked together to bring life to societies from the past by identifying key characteristics of a society'.
Archaeology could include discussions of  the society's 
  • Expeditions by archaeologists to the site(s) and then Excavation at the site
  • Features of the site(s). (These include non-portable remains, such as pyramids, tombs, settlements or even post-holes)
  • Artifacts (These include portable remains, or objects made by humans, such as tools, clothing, and decorations - see Museums and University collections)
  • Ecofacts (Examination of naturally organic or inorganic remains found in an archaeological site, suggesting they were deposited as a result of human activity eg seeds, charcoal, minerals, and unmodified shell or bone) 
  • Human remains (Examination of the age, sex, height, health, nutritional status of the individual, which may be able to provide important information on the culture)
  • Radiocarbon dating (a scientific analysis of carbon-based materials, most frequently charcoal from an ancient fire hearth)
  • Relative dating (the systematic style changes in a people's tools to know how old a site or artifact is)
  • Genomic analysis of biological remains (DNA or paleopathology - the study of ancient diseases and injuries through the examination of fossils, mummified tissue, or skeletal remains)
  • Aerial photography
  • Remote sensing (Remote sensing techniques with infrared films, radar sensors and scanners)
  • GIS (Geographic Information Systems) increases the ability to map and record data when it is used directly at the excavation site
  • Stratigraphy (the study of layered materials (strata) that were deposited over time, and may include soils, sediments, and rocks, as well as man-made features such as pits and postholes)
Other sources of information
  • Written records/documents (including inscriptions) or Oral history handed down 
If the society had written or language records, they give historians resources to deal with that are more detailed in some ways than other records, such as archaeological or biological remains.

MyBib Referencing Generator - APA 7

Manage your bibliography using "MyBib" - Referencing - LibGuides at  Melbourne High School

MyBib is an online referencing generator to help you with in text references and your List of References.


  • Sign up for an account so that it will store the references for your assignment. Add it to your bookmark bar to find it quickly.
  • Install the Chrome extension to make your referencing even faster.
  • Make sure everything in your Reference List has a corresponding In-Text citation in the body of your essay.

'Lost' Civilisations

Ticket Machu Picchu: The Mystery Hiding the Skeletons Found in Machu Picchu

GW Today: Using Ancient DNA, Researchers Unravel the Mystery of Machu Picchu 

Phys.Org: Using ancient DNA, researchers unravel the mystery of Machu Picchu 

National Geographic:Discover 10 secrets of Machu Picchu 

Cover Art Mysteries of Machu Picchu (eBook)

Discusses the beautiful and mysterious city known as Machu Picchu. The city appears to have been carefully constructed--every stone is perfectly cut and placed. The Inca people built Machu Picchu at the height of their empire, but no one knows for sure how or why they created it.

Cover Art Who built Machu Picchu? (eBook)

Machu Picchu, a UNESCO world heritage site, is one of the most important archaeological finds in history. This sanctuary stands at the boundary between the Peruvian Andes and the Amazon Basin, making for spectacular views. The people who built this sanctuary, the Inca, are much more mysterious. This book gives readers insight about how these people lived, what their customs were, and how this awe-inspiring city was found after the Inca were conquered.

World Famous Unsolved Mysteries: Scythians

Chapter from ebook. By Dubey, Abhay Kumar. From 'World Famous Unsolved Mysteries'. 2011. V&S Publishers. 

Frozen Siberian Mummies Reveal a Lost Civilization - Discover Magazine 

British Museum BlogIntroducing the Scythians

The Scythians - Lost Civilizations

Scythia and the Scythians - Gale in Context: World History database

Saving the frozen Scythian tombs of the Altai Mountains 


The real Amazons (National Geographic)

Primary Sources
Introducing the Scythians (British Museum)

Scythia: The men, the mummies (Nicholson Museum)


Cover ArtThe Scythians 700-300 BC (Ebook)

Though the 'Scythian period' in the history of Eastern Europe lasted little more than 400 years, the impression these horsemen made upon the history of their times was such that a thousand years after they had ceased to exist as a sovereign people, their heartland and the territories which they dominated far beyond it continued to be known as 'greater Scythia'. From the very beginnings of their emergence on the world scene the Scythians took part in the greatest campaigns of their times, defeating such mighty contemporaries as Assyria, Urartu, Babylonia, Media and Persia.

Cover ArtThe Scythians : Nomad Warriors of the Steppe (Ebook)

The Scythians were warlike nomadic horsemen who roamed the steppe of Asia in the first millennium BC. Using archaeological finds from burials and texts written, mainly, by Greeks, this book reconstructs the lives of the Scythians, exploring their beliefs, their burial practices, their love of fighting and their flexible attitude to gender.

ONESearch Database Explorer

The ENTIRE collection of resources provided by the BBC Birtles Library can be searched on ONE single, powerful search platform, which retrieves print books, eBooks, database articles and websites. Click HERE for assistance.