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Year 10: Term 1: Assisted Reproductive Technology

PART A1: Structures and processes in the journey from gametogenesis through to birth AND Definitions (300 words)

Gametogenesis to Birth

Look up definitions for 'Fertilisation' and 'Infertility' in any of the following databases. If you are at home, you will have to use the Library Database Passwords document you have been emailed in the past and told to keep aside.

PART B: Advantages and Disadvantages of Allowing the Procedure for Jan and Brian

From The Conversation 2012
There’s no national legislation imposing a maximum age for IVF in Australia, and doctors are divided over whether there should be an age limit. Guidelines in some states, such as South Australia, recommend 50 years as the maximum age. But the government has introduced changes that affect access and affordability. In January 2010, an upper limit was placed on the amount of Medicare reimbursement available to patients undergoing infertility treatment. While offset to some extent by changes to Medicare rebates, there have also been increases to the up-front costs for IVF. The general net result of these changes was estimated to amount to a doubling of out-of-pocket costs for IVF.

From A Global View of IVF Treatment and Access
Swedish women cannot access IVF treatment after age 42. Denmark, in comparison, permits all women, including those coming from abroad, to seek fertility treatment until age 46.

From Medical News Today
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists the 2018 success rates of IVF treatments for one oocyte retrieval from people using their own eggs as:

  • 52% for people aged 35 or younger
  • 38.1% for people aged 35–37
  • 23.5% for people aged 38–40
  • 7.6% for those over the age of 40

From Fertility and Infertility for Dummies by G. Lockwood and others, Wiley and Sons, 2007.

From Royal Australian College of GPs
Dr Karin Hammarberg is a Senior Research Fellow at Monash University and Senior Research Officer at the Victorian Assisted Reproductive Treatment Authority (VARTA). She says ‘IVF cannot work miracles. The chance of having a baby after one IVF attempt is about 30% for women aged under 35, but it’s only about 10% for women aged 40–44,’ Dr Hammarberg said. ‘For women over 45 there’s almost zero chance.’ .

PART C: C.R.A.A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites

Check the quality of your websites using these criteria (adapted from QUT Library):
Currency: Timeliness of the information
  • When was the information published, posted or last updated?
  • Is the information current for your topic and field of study? How recent does it have to be? Can older sources work just as well?
Relevance: Importance of the information for your needs
  • Is the information appropriate for a senior secondary course?
  • Is this an adequately in-depth examination or a quick summary of the topic?
  • Who's the intended audience? Is it the general public, a student, a researcher or industry?
  • Is the level of information too basic or too advanced for your needs?
Authority: Source of the information
  • Is the author/authoring body (individual person, or institution, or organisation) established and reputable?
  • Are their qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, educational background and previous work (if any) relevant and do they add credibility to the source?
  • Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organisation?
  • Do references to other sources support the writing ie is a Reference List provided?
Accuracy: Reliability and correctness of the information
  • Where does the information come from, and is it supported by evidence?
  • Does it have a Reference List or Bibliography so you can easily find and verify the sources used?
  • Are there any spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
Purpose: Reason the information exists
  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
  • Is the viewpoint of the author's affiliation/ sponsors reflected in the message or content?
  • Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?

Purpose: Reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?

PART C: C.R.A.A.P. Test Evaluation Sheet for Research Sources (200 words)

PART A2: Causes of Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Options (200 words)



Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Options for FEMALE Fertility Problems
What is ART? 
The National Library of Medicine defines assisted reproductive techniques as any “clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.” By this definition, intrauterine insemination (IUI), ovulation induction (OI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other forms of egg or sperm manipulation are included. 

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Options for MALE Fertility Problems 


Useful Science Websites

The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information.

An American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases about science


Breaks down the stories behind the most interesting news and photos on the Internet.


Search for news articles which come from trusted news outlets, such as the Associated Press (AP) and The Atlantic, and other sources chosen for use in the classroom.



Regarded as a 'porthole' site, SciTech Daily offers the best intelligent, informed science and technology coverage and analysis you can find on a daily basis, sourcing a huge range of great writers and excellent research institutes.

Gateway to the best Science news sources.

A global science gateway comprised of national and international scientific databases and portals.

The world’s largest biomedical library.


Web-based medical and health news service.

Google Scholar's searches are set to cover scholarly material more often than 'regular' Google. Google Scholar's searches are set to cover scholarly material more often than 'regular' Google. It can be frustrating, as much of an article or book is missing or by purchase only. Read the article below on the advantages an disadvantages of using it.

TIP: To get PDFs only, type in 'filetype:pdf'. It's great!

Advantages / Disadvantages of Google Scholar 

How to use Google Books

Google Books can be very frustrating because often much of the book is missing and you are expected to purchase it to read the full content. So after you put in your search term you are interested in (eg biodiesel), and get some results up,  you should then go immediately to the search box (on the left - above 'About this box') undefined and type in a particular word or term you are interested in (eg CO2 emissions OR methanol) you should get a number of pages pop up. Choose one that looks useful - you should get some good results this way!

PART E: MyBib Referencing Generator - APA 7 Style

Manage your bibliography using "MyBib" - Referencing - LibGuides at  Melbourne High School

MyBib is an online referencing generator to help you with in text references and your List of References.


  • Sign up for an account so that it will store the references for your assignment. Add it to your bookmark bar to find it quickly.
  • Install the Chrome extension to make your referencing even faster.
  • Make sure everything in your Reference List has a corresponding In-Text citation in the body of your essay.

PART A3: Development of the Research Question from the Claim

Age should not be a consideration when determining suitability for reproductive medical procedures.

Research Question is defined as ‘A question that directs the scientific inquiry activity. Its purpose is to focus the research investigation, inform the direction of the research, and guide all stages of inquiry, analysis, interpretation and evaluation’. It should:

1.3.1 Include measurable variables – the independent and dependent variables

1.3.2 Have a guiding word, such as what, why, would or will

1.3.3 Be phrased so that a definitive answer can be developed

1.3.4 Be able to link the guiding word to verbs such as identify, describe, compare, contrast, distinguish, analyse, evaluate or create so that a specific task can be determined


Should patients over the age of 80 years be permitted to undergo triple bypass operations? (Too broad)


Should triple bypass operations (independent variable) be offerered to patients over 80 (participant group) because of their poorer success rate regarding complications from pneumonia and stroke (measurable dependant variable) compared to patients under 80 (comparison/control)


The ENTIRE collection of resources provided by the BBC Library can be searched on ONE single, powerful search platform, which retrieves print books, eBooks, database articles and websites.

Useful Databases

Access Science

NewsBank Access Australia (accessible on campus without logins and from home with logins)

Facts on File : Science Online

Gale Science in Context

Science Reference Center

STEM Database