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Senior: 11 & 12: Unit 1: Chemical Reactions, Properties and Structures


Green hydrogen is made by using clean electricity from surplus renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind power, to electrolyse water. Electrolysers use an electrochemical reaction to split water into its components of hydrogen and oxygen, emitting zero-carbon dioxide in the process.
Green hydrogen currently makes up a small percentage of the overall hydrogen, because production is expensive. Just as energy from wind power has reduced in price, green hydrogen will come down in price as it becomes more common (National Grid)
Access Science: Green Chemistry 

Access Science: A new hydrogen-rich compound may be a record-breaking superconductor

Australian Government: Growing Australia's hydrogen industry

Australian Government: State of hydrogen 2022

Clean Energy Finance Corporation: Australian hydrogen market study

Cosmos: Green hydrogen produced with near 100% efficiency using seawater

Renew Economy: For Australia to be a green hydrogen superpower, first we must find enough water

The Guardian: Green hydrogen beats blue on emissions and financial cost, Australian study finds An integrated framework of open-source tools for designing and evaluating green hydrogen production opportunities

Specialty Polymers
undefined Click on cover to read e-book

Use your student number as password.

Polymers make an enormous contribution to modern life, and include plastic mouldings and extrusions, plastic film and sheet, plastic laminates (fibreglass and formica) rubber gloves, hoses, tyres and sealing rings, fibres for textiles and carpets and so on, cellular products for cushioning and thermal insulation, adhesives and coating materials such as paints and varnishes. The majority of these polymers are synthetic and are derived from oil products. The most important of these in terms of tonnage used are polymers based upon styrene, vinyl chloride, ethylene, propylene and butadiene among plastics and rubber materials, and nylons, polyethylenetere­ phthalate and polyacrylonitrile among fibres.

Suggested Format/Subheadings from QCAA Exemplar

From Mr Fisher, Head of Science
Title: use your RQ as given to you
Claim: Selected from the task sheet
Rationale: Around 200 words that show how your specific and relevant RQ has been developed from the claim. Must be backed up by research/in-text referencing.
RQ: The research question is clearly defined and developed from the claim. The RQ clearly states the variables to be investigated.
The research question is connected to/flows from the rationale.
Note: Sufficient and relevant sources ≈ 8-12 sources and most written within the last 10 years
Background: This section covers the essential chemistry to your RQ.
Analysis and interpretation: This is the largest part of the RI. This is where you present evidence from the different sources that are directly relevant to your RQ. This section can be further divided into sections that deal with an aspect of the RQ/Claim you are investigating. For example (using bio-diesel):
 Complexity to manufacture biodiesel vs fractional distillation of crude oil
 Energy output of biodiesel vs petro-diesel
 Vehicle performance using the two fuel types.
Must include limitations of evidence and real chemistry (ie molecules, reactions, analysis techniques and all that good stuff) and not just be a socio-economic or “save-the-planet” comparison.
Conclusion and evaluation: Again, this section can have further sub-heading to directly address the ISMG point.:
  “Reviewing the literature/evidence” allows you to address the quality of evidence
  “Link to the claim” allows you to address extrapolation of credible findings
  “Improvements and extensions” – obvious….
  “Conclusion”—must directly answer the RQ then summarise the key aspects of the RI

Advanced Web Searching Tips

1. Use 'Ctrl F' (Control + Find) to search for particular terms easily in a long document, whether from a website or a database article.
2.  Use a Boolean command - put double inverted commas around phrases to limit and improve your results eg "energy drinks cardiovascular problems children". 
3. Use a Google domain command eg site:edu OR site:gov to limit results to a CERTAIN DOMAIN such as education or government eg biodiesel site:edu
4. Use a Google command to limit results to the MOST RECENT: After you get your results, choose the Google Menu Bar, and choose 'Tools'. Then on the far left, at the drop-down menu next to 'Any Time', you can choose 'Within the last year' (or less, if you prefer), but generally, you can choose 'Custom Range' at the bottom, as often the last 3-4 years would be sufficient for a recent search.

Request the Library to purchase an Ebook for your assignment!

Ebook Central
You can see the entire Proquest Ebook Central Catalogue of 500,000 resources by entering your search term in the box above.  You may browse any title for 5 minutes, and if it's one we don't already own, it will say 'request this book from your library', which means you can email the Library to ask us to purchase it if you like it, or simply rent it for a day so you can quickly take the notes you need during that day.
We will attend to your request as quickly as possible!

MyBib Referencing Generator

Manage your bibliography using "MyBib" - Referencing - LibGuides at  Melbourne High School

MyBib is an online referencing generator to help you with in text references and your List of References.


  • Sign up for an account so that it will store the references for your assignment. Add it to your bookmark bar to find it quickly.
  • Install the Chrome extension to make your referencing even faster.
  • Make sure everything in your Reference List has a corresponding In-Text citation in the body of your essay.

Zotero - Online Referencing Tool

Zotero can be set to the same Harvard AGPS (Australia) style that CiteAce uses, called 'Melbourne Polytechnic - Harvard'. Please read the instructions carefully.

Any issues - see your Library Staff

QCAA Exemplars

Chemistry Exemplar from QCAA
CLAIM: Natural shampoos are better than synthetic shampoos.
RESEARCH QUESTION: Are natural shampoos better cleaners than synthetic shampoos based on surface tension, wetting time, solid content, detergency and foaming ability?

QUT C.R.A.A.P. Test for Evaluating Websites

Check the quality of your websites using these criteria (adapted from QUT Library):
Currency: Timeliness of the information
  • When was the information published, posted or last updated?
  • Is the information current for your topic and field of study? How recent does it have to be? Can older sources work just as well?
Relevance: Importance of the information for your needs
  • Is the information appropriate for a senior secondary course?
  • Is this an adequately in-depth examination or a quick summary of the topic?
  • Who's the intended audience? Is it the general public, a student, a researcher or industry?
  • Is the level of information too basic or too advanced for your needs?
Authority: Source of the information
  • Is the author/authoring body (individual person, or institution, or organisation) established and reputable?
  • Are their qualifications, credentials, expertise, experience, educational background and previous work (if any) relevant and do they add credibility to the source?
  • Has the piece been published by a well-known and respected publisher or organisation?
  • Do references to other sources support the writing ie is a Reference List provided?
Accuracy: Reliability and correctness of the information
  • Where does the information come from, and is it supported by evidence?
  • Does it have a Reference List or Bibliography so you can easily find and verify the sources used?
  • Are there any spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
Purpose: Reason the information exists
  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?
  • Is the viewpoint of the author's affiliation/ sponsors reflected in the message or content?
  • Does the author acknowledge alternative versions of the issues or facts?

Purpose: Reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? Why was it written?
  • Does the point of view appear objective, unbiased and impartial?

Science Subscription Databases

Subscription Science Journals

Science News 

Highly respected Science journal. Login with email: Use the little magnifying glass symbol in the top toolbar to search.


How to Create In-Text References for Figures and Tables

Data Sets

Data sets involve the integration of heterogeneous data in varying formats and from diverse communities. Four basic features can be identified as common to most definitions: grouping, content, relatedness, and purpose.

ONESearch Database Explorer

The ENTIRE collection of resources provided by the BBC Birtles Library can be searched on ONE single, powerful search platform, which retrieves print books, eBooks, database articles and websites. Click HERE for assistance.

Science Template for Writing Research Assignments

From Mrs Allen:

1.       START EARLY

          a.       First 10% - General Reading (This is where your ideas are shaped, read 3-6 sources of VARIETY)
          b.       10% - 40/50% - Active Notetaking (This is where you collect & collate evidence & info)
          c.       40-50% - 80% - Organisation of Ideas (This is where you construct the structure of your essay,  and allocate the number of words for  each part).
          d.       80% - 100% - Writing (This is where you write the assignment as streamlined as possible)

Research Assignment Template - Mrs D.Allen

Research Tips for Senior Science

Suggested Chemistry Websites

A free chemical structure database providing fast access to over 100 million structures, properties, and associated information


The UK's professional body for chemists. Responsible for advancing excellence, connecting chemical scientists and shaping the future of the chemical sciences for the benefit of humanity.


A monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. It addresses current events in world of chemistry including research, international business news and government policy as it affects the chemical science community, 


Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Acts as the key body advocating the interests and activities of the chemical sciences with over 4000 members across Australia

American Chemical Society. One of the world’s largest scientific organisations. Mission is to advance the broader chemistry enterprise and its practitioners for the benefit of Earth and its people. 

The world authority on chemical nomenclature (names) and terminology, including the naming of new elements in the periodic table; on standardized methods for measurement; and on atomic weights, and many other critically-evaluated data.

The world's most comprehensive and authoritative source of news about chemistry and related fields

Useful General Academic Websites

The world’s largest collection of open access research papers

An inclusive journal community which believes all rigorous science needs to be published and discoverable, widely disseminated and freely accessible to all

A free distribution service and an open archive for scholarly articles in the fields of science

An American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases about science


Breaks down the stories behind the most interesting news and photos on the Internet.

A network of not-for-profit media outlets that publish news stories on the Internet that are written by academics and researchers

The NCBI advances science and health by providing access to biomedical and genomic information.

Google Books can be very frustrating because often much of the book is missing and you are expected to purchase it to read the full content. So after you put in your search term you are interested in (eg biodiesel), and get some results up,  you should then go immediately to the search box (on the left - above 'About this box') undefined and type in a particular word or term you are interested in (eg CO2 emissions OR methanol) you should get a number of pages pop up. Choose one that looks useful - you should get some good results this way!