A new century and Australia begins life as a federated nation. Politicians and opinion-makers embark on nation-building exercises. They choose the site for a new capital, and debate and pass laws that lead to a fair and reasonable wage, unemployment benefits and a universal pension – universal, that is, unless you're Indigenous.
How are human rights defined in Australia?
Human rights recognise the inherent value of each person, regardless of background, where we live, what we look like, what we think or what we believe. They are based on principles of dignity, equality and mutual respect, which are shared across cultures, religions and philosophies.
In the 1920s residential institutions were still viewed by authorities as appropriate places in which to bring up children.
As a result, about 500,000 children from 1920 to 1980 were committed to spend part or all of their childhood ‘inside’. The majority of these children were not orphans. Many had one or both parents alive, or had other living relatives. How many institutions there were will probably never be known. There were at least 800.
They varied from large institutions holding several hundred children to a household where maybe a dozen children were cared for by a couple of carers, perhaps a widow and an adult daughter.
These institutions were run by churches and charities, state governments, other philanthropic organisations or private individuals.
Some were run on the ‘cottage system’, where children lived in smaller groups looked after by ‘cottage parents’ within the grounds of the institution.
For some children, the institution was where they spent all their childhood. For others it was a part of their childhood.
The reasons for children being placed in institutions from the 1920s to 1980s were many and varied:
A small number of families were able to bring their children home again. But once a child was in the system, it was often difficult or impossible for families to negotiate their return.
The 20th century was dominated by significant events that defined the modern era: the sixth mass extinction, Spanish flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear weapons, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts, and technological advances.
In the early years of the 20 th century, Australia offered the following working conditions...
Edward Koiki Mabo (né Sambo; c. 29 June 1936 – 21 January 1992) was an Indigenous Australian man from the Torres Strait Islands known for his role in campaigning for Indigenous land rights and in a landmark decision of the High Court of Australia that overturned the legal doctrine of terra nullius ("nobody's land") that characterised Australian law with regard to land and title, and officially recognised the rights of Aboriginal Australians to own and use the land on which their families had lived for millennia.
Australia’s modern culture has been shaped by a number of factors, including Americanization, immigration, ancient heritage, and climate. With much of the population living close to the coast, a strong beach culture dominates society