The plant life cycle starts with a seed. From the outside, seeds are protected by a tough layer, called Outer Coat. But inside every seed, there is a tiny baby plant, known as an embryo. The embryo has a root, shoot as well as the first true leaves.
Seeds wait to germinate until three needs are met:- water, correct temperature (warmth), and a good location (such as in soil).
When a plant becomes mature, it started to grow flower (in a flowering plant) and flowers produce seeds. A mature plant has leaves, roots, stem, flower and fruits.
Flowers are the reproductive part of a plant. It makes seeds which in turn make new plants. There are different parts of a flower such as petals, sepals, stamen, pistil etc.
Before a seed germinates, it is DORMANT (means, alive but inactive). For germination, seeds need a suitable condition i.e. water, correct temperature and right location (such as in soil).
When the proper conditions are met for the seed, it will begin to sprout. The first root begins to grow downward. There are few tiny hairs on the roots which absorb water and minerals from the soil.
The process of the sprouting of seed usually after a period of dormancy is called germination.
Pollination plays a very important role in the plant life cycle. Flowers use pollen to make seeds through a process called pollination. Pollen is transferred by different pollinators, such as birds, butterflies, insects, bees or even wind.
When a butterfly or other insect lands on a flower, dust of pollen sticks to its legs. As the butterfly flies to the next plant, it transfers the pollen to the pistil.
So, when pollen moved from the stamen to the pistil, called pollination. And Once pollination takes place, the seeds start to grow.
The next step is seedling. A very young plant that grow after germination. It starts growing towards the sunlight. Plants need sunlight, nutrients, water, and air to survive and grow. Photosynthesis helps the seedling grow into a mature plant.
Finally, seeds get dispersed (scattered) away to new places and the plant life cycle starts again. Seeds can get spread by animals, wind, and water.
The plants which do not produce the flowers and seeds to reproduce are called Seedless Plants. Such as fern or mosses produce different kinds of cells called “Spores”.
Spores are the part of the plants or their remaining. New plants are produced from the spores and continue to grow.