NSW Geography Teachers Association: Coffee Trade Exemplar
Australian National Curriculum: Geographic Interconnections
Exemplar on Coffee trade from the Australian National Curriculum website
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Cotton is the most widespread profitable non-food crop in the world. Its production provides income for more than 250 million people worldwide and employs almost 7% of all labor in developing countries. Approximately half of all textiles are made of cotton (World Wildlife)
Australian Cotton: Features and benefits of cotton
Statista: Leading cotton producing countries worldwide in 2021/2022
The World Counts: Tons of cotton produced, globally this year
United States Department of Agriculture: Foreign Agricultural Service: Cotton world markets and trade
Cotton - Recent market developments and projections for medium-term cotton market. Price, production, consumption and trade developments are discussed as well as the future of the cotton market (OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-ordination and Development).
Australian Cotton Sustainability Framework: Australian cotton sustainability update 2021
Textile Exchange: Organic cotton market report
World Population Review: Cotton production by country 2022
World Atlas: Top cotton producing countries in the world
Temperature requirements for cotton
Precision Agriculture: Ideal conditions for growing cotton
Productivity commission regulation of agriculture
Cotton Up: Challenges for cotton
Trvst: Environmental impact of cotton from growing, farming and consuming
University of British Columbia: Ecological and social costs of cotton farming
Panaprium: The truth about cotton environmental impact
International Institute for Sustainable Development: Global market report - cotton
Business and Human Rights Resource Centre: Cotton On and Target Australia stop buying cotton from Xinjiang over human rights concerns
The Australian Strategic Policy Institute: Untangling from Xinjiang cotton will be easier said than done
Ivory Coast is the largest cocoa producer of the world with more than 2 million tons every year. Cocoa represents 40% of the export revenues of the country, which is phenomenal. This dependence can endanger the country if the price of cocoa falls, like in 2021, putting million of farmers in trouble. (From Cluizel). Only five percent of chocolate sold today is certified to be free from forced, child or trafficked labour. Children often harvest cocoa in dangerous conditions. (From World Vision Australia).
Our World in Data: Cocoa beans
KakaoPlatform: Produced in the south and consumed in the north
World Population Review: Cocoa producing countries 2022
Reuters: In Ivory Coast, a battle to save cocoa-ravaged forests
Cluizel US: The Largest Cocoa Producers in the World
Statista: Chocolate industry statistics and facts
UNCTAD: Cocoa Industry: Integrating Small Farmers into the Global Value Chain
Food is Power: Child labour and slavery in the chocolate industry
Fortune Business Insights: Cocoa and chocolate market
OEC World: Chocolate in Australia
Bakerpedia: Sustainable chocolate
Makonelli: Today's challenges for the chocolate of the future
University of Arizona: Cocoa, Currency and a Chocolate Crisis
World Wildlife Fund: Bittersweet: chocolate's impact on the environment
Redvervemedia: Chocolate Challenges: The Social, Technological, and Environmental Issues Facing the Cocoa Industry
Well and Good: Chocolate Is One of the Most Damaging Foods to the Environment—Here’s Why
Food Navigator: From indirect supply to reforestation - the challenges and opportunities to halt cocoa deforestation
Centre for Strategic and International Studies: Why Sustainable Cocoa Farming Matters for Rural Development
Phys.org: Chocolate industry driving deforestation of Ivory Coast: report
CocoaLife: A story on farming - 'Through Cocoa Life, we are able to expand our knowledge about new farming techniques and learn to master good agricultural practices'.
Forbes: What Is The Sweet Solution To The Issue Of Child Labor In Cocoa Trade?
European Commission: Ending Child Labour and Promoting Sustainable Cocoa Production in Côte D'Ivoire and Ghana
Fortune: If we want to keep eating chocolate, we have to end deforestation
Palm oil is found in food, cosmetics and cleaning products, and is mainly grown in Indonesia and Malaysia. Palm oil harvesting commonly uses forced and child labour, and is also environmentally damaging. (From World Vision Australia).
Our World in Data: Where is palm oil grown?
AsianAgri: The benefits of palm oil
International Institute for Sustainable Development: Global market report - Palm oil
The Guardian: How the world got hooked on palm oil
EcoBusiness: What is sustainable palm oil?
Borgen Project: Palm oil production in Indonesia
Indonesian Investments: Palm oil
Statista: Palm oil industry in Indonesia- statistics & facts
International Institute for Environment and Development: Palm oil
GrowAsia: Mainstreaming sustainable palm oil
Schuster Institute: Indonesia's palm oil industry
Human Rights Watch: Indonesia: Expanding Palm Oil Operations Bring Harm
Greenpeace: Indonesian forests and palm oil
The Conversation: The impact of Indonesia’s ban on palm oil exports reverberated across the globe
The Interpreter: A flash in the pan? Indonesia’s palm oil export ban
Netherlands and You: Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil sector
Trading Economics: Malaysian palm oil data
East Asia Forum: Sustainable palm oil production is in Malaysia’s hand
Friends of the Earth: Palm oil - the Australian connection
Mongabay: Proposal could redefine palm oil-driven deforestation as reforestation in Indonesia
World Wildlife Fund: 8 things to know about palm oil
Includes a section about solutions.
Ensia: How did palm oil become such a problem, and what can we do about it?